Saturday, August 11, 2018

Saskatchewan and the Dominion Land Survey (1919)



Before continuing our quick sweep through southern Saskatchewan in 1989,
here is a document from 70 years earlier, which explains the Dominion Land Survey system.

This topic arises from the two previous posts, looking at the land and the CPR
between the Manitoba/Saskatchewan border and Moose Jaw ...
and including references to 'correction lines'.

from: Canada Handbook; 1948; Government of Canada.

The 1870s surveying process preceding the Canadian/European/US settling of the Prairies
contrasted with survey systems used in Canada in an earlier age (above).

... And where western settlement had occurred before the 1870s
river frontage and other traditional systems had been in use to organize land title.

Today, aerial views of farmland (e.g. near Selkirk, Manitoba) illustrate the contrasts between the two systems.

from: Canada Handbook; 1965-66; Government of Canada.

The 90 degree angles of the DLS can be see everywhere in the photo above.

*  *  *

A 1919 explanation of the Dominion Land Survey system.


This booklet was published by the federal government in 1919.
In its 150 pages are detailed all aspects of Saskatchewan's features and resources.

*  *  *

If the Minister's name rings a bell ... Arthur Meighen was later prime minister for short periods - twice in the 1920s. 

An Arthur Meighen Digression ...

from: Borden, His Life and World; John English; 1977; McGraw-Hill Ryerson.

Originally from Ontario, Arthur Meighen was first elected as the member of parliament for Portage la Prairie in 1908. Later, in various ministerial portfolios ... he presided over legislation and events which included the 1917 Conscription Crisis, the creation of the Canadian National Railways and the Winnipeg General Strike. 

He became prime minister after the resignation of Sir Robert Borden in 1920 ... until the results of the subsequent 1921 federal election ... when Mackenzie King's Liberals were elected and Meighen lost his seat in Portage la Prairie. Leading the Conservatives, Meighen returned as an MP via a by-election in Grenville. >> This supports my long-held observation that everyone has some kind of connection with Lachute, Quebec.

The 1925 federal election resulted in a Mackenzie King minority government ... and the famous King-Byng Affair. About to lose a scandal-inspired vote of censure in the Commons, Mackenzie King deftly asked Byng to dissolve Parliament and call a federal election. Usually ... a governor general would comply with this request. 
Consistent with the practice in those times ... British prime minister ... David Lloyd George ... had recommended to King George V ... that the English-born Julian Hedworth George Byng ('Bungo' to his friends) be appointed as Canadian governor general in 1921.
Responding to Mackenzie King's request for an election, Byng 'interfered' and invited Meighen to form a government. After 3 days in power, Meighen was defeated by a vote of non-confidence. Trivia fans: This was the shortest-lived federal government in Canadian history.

Mackenzie King won the election handily by emphasizing that the foreigner figurehead Byng had interfered in Canadian politics. Meighen, again running in Portage la Prairie, was defeated.

Arthur Meighen was subsequently appointed to the Senate in 1932 by RB Bennett and his life in politics continued after that ...


Historical observation:

Meighen's lifespan encompassed the end of the bison herds on the Prairies,
the Great War, the Great Depression, World War 2,
the end of steam on Canadian railways and the first satellites of the Space Age.

... and also, he probably went to Lachute at some point.

*  *  *


* * END OF THE ARTHUR MEIGHEN DIGRESSION









*  *  *


From a CPR booklet for settlers from Britain circa 1909




The apportionment of Sections in each Township
is shown in this CPR diagram from circa 1909.


*  *  *

from: Arc of the Medicine Line; Tony Rees; 2007; Douglas & McIntyre.
Sappers of the Royal Engineers prepare an international boundary marker near Milk River (in today's eastern Alberta).

As noted above, everything began with surveying the 49th Parallel of latitude ...
which forms much of the boundary between the US and Canada in the west.

The photographs above and below help show the scale of the vast expanse of western land,
and the tiny specks of determined human effort to establish permanent settlements on it.

... Human and animal muscle power did most of the early work of settlement.

from: Canada, The Missing Years; Patricia Pierce; 1985; Stoddart.
Above, settlers are trekking out from Moose Jaw to the patch of prairie they intend to work.

While a sod hut could be built primarily with local material (prairie sod for the upper walls, and a hole in the ground for the living area), stove pipes and other key technologies had to be carted to the staked-out lot which the settler had spoken for ... somewhere out there on the prairie.


from: History of the Canadian Pacific Railway; W Kaye Lamb; 1977; Macmillan.
Photographed after 1900, here is a sod hut.
Anecdotes suggest that its 'green roof' would 'rain' inside for several days after wet weather passed.

The bones are not decoration, but bison remains harvested as a cash crop from the prairie.
The going price for bison bones was $5-8 per ton.

*  *  *

In 1911-1915 ...


The maps above and below show population density in 1911 and features up to 1915
... from my Government of Canada atlas.

I have inserted the key to population density in the upper right corner of the map above.
Most Township squares have fewer than 30 people per square mile.

Once again, I'm bumping up against the size limits for Google Blog images.

The enlarged map section below offers more detail for the area
which will be shown in photos from 1989 in the next post.


*  *  *


Printed cheaply on cheap paper, this 80 page booklet was probably produced in 1909
for free distribution to prospective British settlers visiting 'emigration' offices in Britain.

Horse-drawn binders are working ... they cut and bind groups of wheat stalks into a sheaf.
This bundle of stalks is left lying in the field - each bundle might weight 30 pounds (?)
... depending on the preferences of the farmer, how dry the wheat plants were, weather, etc.
The turning wheels under a binder are geared to drive the cutting and binding mechanism.
A key technology here is the mechanism to knot and cut the binding cord for each sheaf.

The sheaves are next stood vertically on their cut ends
and leaned against each other, forming  stooks, to dry completely
(labour-intensive - stooking workers are not shown).

Once dried, each sheaf is taken from the stook and forked onto a wagon.
The next step, threshing, is done at a central location.

We only see three stooking/forking labourers working in the whole field!

At the threshing machine (not shown),
the wheat seeds are broken free from the straw (hollow stalk) and chaff (seed husks, etc).
Early threshing operations directed the grain seeds into standard 100 pound bags for storage and/or transportation.


Today's modern harvesters (combines) combine the cutting and threshing steps.
Modern strains of short-stalk, earlier ripening wheat are often sprayed with glyphosate
to dessicate the plant before harvesting.
Aircraft can spray grain fields quickly without the loss of plants flattened by tractor-towed spraying equipment.


Saturday, August 4, 2018

CPR Moose Jaw, An Old Regina Map & the Prairies - 1859 to 1989


Our south Saskatchewan sweep of 1989 took us by a watercourse named Moose Jaw Creek, according to an 1859 map of the Palliser Expedition. Referring to that map in the Eighteenth Report of the Geographic Board of Canada (containing all decisions to 31 March 1924) ... this creek's name was to be written as Moosejaw.

from: Exploration - British North America. : papers relative to the exploration by Captain Palliser, 1859 at archive.org
I believe the CPR Moose Jaw station is located just north of 
the junction of Thunder Mn Cr and Moose Jaw Cr.

Captain John Palliser (1817-1887) reports below:

from: Exploration - British North America. : papers relative to the exploration by Captain Palliser, 1859 at archive.org

In 1989, we woke up in Regina and sped southbound through Moose Jaw so I've arranged this post in that order.

In 1892:

from: CPR Annotated Timetable (westbound) - July 19, 1892; Railfare reprint.

Regina in 1915:

from: Atlas of Canada; 1915; Government of Canada.

Around 1920:

from: Across Canada, Annotated Timetable (westbound); circa 1920; CPR.

*  *  *

Regina in 1989

Below, with the sunrise on September 12 occuring at around 0630hr, the nearby houses and our VW Fox are frosted. That diesel looks a little cold too.

Looking at a Saskatchewan crop insurance First Fall Frost Map ... between September 11 and 17 is a reasonable time to expect a first frost in the Regina area. I don't know if what you see here would cause frost damage to crops or if it would result in affected grain being classified into a lower grade. However, as eastern Canadians we were surprised when we looked out and saw frost.

As a relevant historical example, if a settler arrived here from Essex in England ... the first frost there usually occurs between November 11 and November 20.

... Welcome to the Canadian west ... Surprise!


I have been reading that as the first (central) areas of the Prairies were being settled, earlier ripening grain cultivars were important to enable the first farmers to avoid frost losses. Some areas of the Saskatchewan frost map show first frosts are expected August 28 to September 4! 

... The Dominion experimental farm system's farms at Brandon, Indian Head and particularly Ottawa were important in developing earlier ripening wheat and other grains because they obtained seeds from similar cold climates (e.g. northern Europe) and tested and interbred them. Not only did the wheat have to ripen in time ... but it also had to have suitable milling and baking properties - particularly if it was to be exported to Europe.

In contrast to ripening earlier to beat frost ... as more southwesterly areas opened up (where we will be driving later on this day) knowledge of moisture-conserving practices (such as summer fallow) became critical for successful farming. 

from: The Imperial Highway; AN Homer; no date (pre-1915); Causton & Sons, London.

*  *  *

Some 'bar graphs' from 1915:


from: Atlas of Canada; 1915; Government of Canada.

Above: After 1900, you can imagine how significant
western grain farming and ranching on the newly-occupied prairies
were becoming for the export-oriented Canadian economy.


from: Atlas of Canada; 1915; Government of Canada.

Above, you can see the countries of birth for people the newly-settled Prairies.
Knowledge of dryland farming techniques did come north with some of the immigrants from the US.

I don't know when bar graphs were 'invented' ... the numbers, above, may seem confusing,
but they just show the percent data to two decimal places.


from: Atlas of Canada; 1915; Government of Canada.

On the 'railway territory' map above, from 1915, you can see the influence of the CPR (green) in southern Saskatchewan.
For fun, notice that the spelling Moosejaw follows the Geographical Board's decision - republished in 1924.

*  *  *

Following, are commercial advertisements 
and a sponsored article about Moose Jaw from circa 1920.

In the following photos, you can figure out the vantage point of the camera ...
if you keep an eye on the grain elevators, water tanks, roundhouse and the station's distinctive roof.

Following the black and white pages is an older colour postcard which clearly illustrates those features.
(The station faces south and the grain elevators are to the west.)


from: Commercial Canada, Its Progress and Opportunities; ed: Fred Cook; circa 1920; Redman Book Co, Leeds, England.

from: Commercial Canada, Its Progress and Opportunities; ed: Fred Cook; circa 1920; Redman Book Co, Leeds, England.


from: Commercial Canada, Its Progress and Opportunities; ed: Fred Cook; circa 1920; Redman Book Co, Leeds, England.

from: Commercial Canada, Its Progress and Opportunities; ed: Fred Cook; circa 1920; Redman Book Co, Leeds, England.


from: Commercial Canada, Its Progress and Opportunities; ed: Fred Cook; circa 1920; Redman Book Co, Leeds, England.

*  *  *

A Moose Jaw Postcard

Postcard mailed Dec 31 1918 within Ontario.

I just noticed the stub switches - this must be a rather old photo.


from: The Imperial Highway; AN Homer; no date (pre-1915); Causton & Sons, London.

The view above comes from a rather elaborate book prepared to promote the CPR corporate empire.


from: Back cover: CPR Public Timetable; April 1939.

The outside back cover of the CPR public timetable shows how Moose Jaw was a key junction
 between the CPR's main line and its track through North Portal, Saskatchewan 
to the US Midwestern States and the bright lights of Chicago.

Four months after this schedule went into effect, World War Two began.

*  *  *

Photos from September 1989 and Our Minutes in Moose Jaw



I discovered that these two photos fit together - though probably not by design.
I think I detect some VIA blue on the closest section of the station - for The Canadian, before its CPR routing was cancelled.

The closed tunnels to the passenger tracks show the former importance of this CPR station.



Swinging the camera a little to the left (south) we see some power waiting for another run.



Finally, looking over Thunder [Mountain] Creek, here is the station (right, with its clock tower) and the CPR offices (left) as seen from the south. The clock could be seen along Main Street for a number of blocks. This would have been helpful to passengers who chose to shop while waiting for their train connections. 

If you locate the two tallest yard light standards, then find a point midway between them on the horizon, you may see that the last of those three or four country elevators was still standing in 1989.